Sunday, 5 February 2012

sack of rome by hinton hunt

The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal StatesFile:Emperor charles v.png. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles and the League of Cognac (1526–1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.below sack of rome by lingelbachFile:Sack of Rome of 1527 by Johannes Lingelbach 17th century.jpg
Pope Clement VII had given his support to the Kingdom of France in an attempt to alter the File:Clement VII. Sebastiano del Piombo. c.1531..jpgbalance of power in the region, and free the Papacy from what many considered to be 'Imperial domination' by the Holy Roman Empire (and the Habsburg dynasty).
The army of the Holy Roman Emperor defeated the French army in Italy, but funds were not available to pay the soldiers. The 34,000 Imperial troops mutinied and forced their commander, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon and Constable of FranceFile:Connetable Bourbon.jpg, to lead them towards Rome. File:Charles III, Duke of Bourbon.jpgApart from some 6,000 Spaniards File:Landsknechte.jpgunder the Duke, the army included some 14,000 Landsknechts under Georg von FrundsbergFile:Georg von Frundsberg.jpg, some Italian infantry led by Fabrizio MaramaldoAn illiterate native of Naples or Calabria, his exact origins are unknown, though he hailed from the Kingdom of Naples, and was perhaps of Spanish origin. He fled Naples after having murdered his wife and sought protection at the GonzagaFile:Blason famille it Gonzaga03.svg under Federico 11, Duke of Mantova and in the Republic of Venice. In 1526 he was absolved of the crime of uxoricide by Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. He fought the Turks in Hungary, and the French in Piedmont. He suffered a grievous setback in the siege he laid to the city of Asti in 1526 where, after having breached the walls by cannonfire for a final assault, legend narrates that victory was snatched from his grasp by the intervention of the town's patron saint, St.Secondus of Astiwho is said to have appeared in the sky. Fighting on the imperial side, he took part in the Sack of Rome the following year, and three years later, in the siege of Florence. He gained a reputation as a ruthless mercenary and ravager., Sciarra ColonnaFile:Cristofano dell'altissimo, sciarra colonna, ante 1568.JPGFile:ColonnaSlappingBoniface.jpg and Luigi Gonzaga, and some cavalry underFerdinando Gonzaga.above colonna hitting the pope
Rome was his nemesis.The matter shook the old commander to such an extent that he suffered a stroke. Unable to regain his physical strength, Frundsberg was moved to Germany after a long struggle in Italian hospitals. Tormented by great anxiety over the situation with his mercenaries or “beloved sons”, the loss of his personal estate and death of one of his sons, Frundsberg died in his castle in MindelheimFile:Mindelheim.jpg. He was considered a capable and chivalrous soldier, and a devoted servant of the Habsburgs.
His son Caspar (1500–1536) and his grandson Georg (died 1586) were both soldiers of some distinction. With the latter's death, the family became extinct.
During World War II, the Waffen-SS's 10th Panzer Division was given the honorific title Frundsberg.File:Guastalla-monumento Ferrante I Gonzaga2.jpg and Philibert, Prince of Orange. File:Four generations Princes of Orange - William I, Maurice and Frederick Henry, William II, William III (Willem van Honthorst, 1662).jpgThough Martin Luther himself was not in favor of it, some who considered themselves convinced followers of Luther's Protestant movement viewed the Papal capital as a target for religious reasons, and shared with the soldiers a desire for the sacking and pillaging of a very rich city that appeared to be an easy target. Numerous bandits, along with the League's deserters, joined with the army during the march.
The Duke left Arezzo on April 20, 1527, taking advantage of the chaos among the Venetians and their allies after a revolt which had broken out in Florence against the Medici. In this way, the largely undisciplined troops sacked AcquapendenteFile:Acquapendente.jpg and San Lorenzo alle Grotte,File:San Lorenzo Nuovo-panorama2.jpg and occupied Viterbo and RonciglioneFile:Ronciglione borgo.jpg, reaching the walls of Rome on May 5.

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